The Aurora Borealis, or Northern Lights, shines above Bear Lake Wikimedia Commons picture of the year, 2006 Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska Source
Charles Bruce's 1959 paper "Cosmic Thunderstorms", which was awarded the Journal Fund Silver Pen Awards for Learned Publications
Comet Hale-Bopp showing three tails: (1) red: water ions (2) yellow: sodium atoms (3) blue: dust tail. Photo credit: J. Wilson, J. Baumgardner, M. Mendillo (Boston University)
Jets emanating from nucleus of Comet Halley. Birkeland emulated jets from a cathode in a vacuum tube (see below) Source/credit
Saturnian aurora whose reddish colour is characteristic of ionized hydrogen plasma. Powered by the Saturnian equivalent of (filamentary) Birkeland currents, streams of charged particles from the interplanetary medium interact with the planet's magnetic field and funnel down to the poles. Double layers are associated with (filamentary) currents, and their electric fields accelerate ions and electrons.
The Sun's immense gravity is unable to hold onto the "solar wind" which streams away at about 400km per second Source
The image above shows the optical afterglow of gamma ray burst GRB-990123 taken on January 23, 1999. The burst is seen as a bright dot denoted by a square on the left, with an enlarged cutout on the right. The object above it with the finger-like filaments is the originating galaxy. This galaxy seems to be distorted by a collision with another galaxy.
Heliospheric current sheet, the largest structure in the heliosphere. Credit: Werner Heil, NASA artists, developed by Prof. John Wilcox.
The Plasma Universe issue of Physics Today (Sep 1986) featuring Hannes Alfvén's popular introductory article on the subject
Planet Earth showing four states of matter, (1) the plasma aurora, (2) the gaseous atmosphere, (3) the liquid oceans, and (4) the solid Arctic ice. Source
Willard Harrison Bennett (far right) with colleagues at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, working on the Störmertron tube Source
Wolf Effect illustrated. The chart shows idealized spectral lines of ionized oxygen (black lines, right) at rest, together with Doppler-shifted lines (red) due to motion of the source, and Wolf-shifted lines (blue) at rest. Note that three free parameters are arbitrarily chosen by the authors to obtain a shape that mimics the Doppler shift as closely as possible. The authors report observing a decrease in frequency for a Wolf Effect, but do not report observing as precise a correspondence as this since the detail conditions for the Wolf Effect to mimic a Doppler redshift are difficult to come by.  Source