The Plasma Universe is a term coined by Nobel Laureate Hannes Alfvén to highlight the importance of plasma throughout the Universe. See how much you think you know about cosmic plasma below, and then check out our articles, images and the Plasma Universe Timeline. Note: Some of the theories on this site form the cornerstone of plasma astrophysics. Other theories contradict the generally accepted view (qv). This site merely attempts to describe them, citing peer-reviewed references where available.
The visible Universe is 99.999% plasma. The Sun is about 100% plasma, as are all stars. Plasma makes up nearly 100% of the interplanetary, interstellar and intergalactic medium. The Earth’s ionosphere is plasma.
A gas as little as 1% ionized may behave as a plasma (e.g. the ionosphere). In addition to light and friction, dust and grains are charged inside a plasma, and behave as one, such as the Glowing Eye Nebula, above.