- “Abstract: A new interaction, plasma redshift, is derived, which is important only when photons penetrate a hot, sparse electron plasma. The derivation of plasma redshift is based entirely on conventional axioms of physics, without any new assumptions. The calculations are only more exact than those usually found in the literature. When photons penetrate a cold and dense electron plasma, they lose energy through ionization and excitation, through Compton scattering on the individual electrons, and through Raman scattering on the plasma frequency. But when the plasma is very hot and has low density, such as in the solar corona, the photons lose energy also in plasma redshift, which is an interaction with the electron plasma. The energy loss of a photon per electron in the plasma redshift is about equal to the product of the photon’s energy and one half of the Compton cross-section per electron. This energy loss (plasma redshift of the photons) consists of very small quanta, which are absorbed by the plasma and cause a significant heating. In quiescent solar corona, this heating starts in the transition zone to the solar corona and is a major fraction of the coronal heating. Plasma redshift contributes also to the heating of the interstellar plasma, the galactic corona, and the intergalactic plasma. Plasma redshift explains the solar redshifts, the redshifts of the galactic corona, the cosmological redshifts, the cosmic microwave background, and the X-ray background. The plasma redshift explains the observed magnitude-redshift relation for supernovae SNe Ia without the big bang, dark matter, or dark energy. There is no cosmic time dilation. The universe is not expanding. The plasma redshift, when compared with experiments, shows that the photons’ classical gravitational redshifts are reversed as the photons move from the Sun to the Earth. This is a quantum mechanical effect. As seen from the Earth, a repulsion force acts on the photons. This means that there is no need for Einstein’s Lambda term. The universe is quasi-static, infinite, everlasting and can renew itself forever. All these findings thus lead to fundamental changes in the theory of general relativity and in our cosmological perspective.”
- “The plasma redshift appears to eliminate five major deficiencies in Einstein’s cosmological model for a static universe:
- Plasma redshift can explain the cosmological redshift.
- Plasma redshift can explain the cosmological microwave background.
- Plasma redshift resolves the Olbers’ paradox. If starlight were not attenuated, as it traveled through intergalactic space, the sky would be bright as the stars in an infinite universe. The attenuation of the light intensity by the plasma redshift of light by intergalactic electrons resolves this problem.
- Einstein’s cosmological model has significant instability, which is caused by the tendency of matter to concentrate due to gravitational attraction. Plasma redshift, when compared with solar redshift, leads to reversal of photons gravitational redshifts and to the renewal of matter at the center of galaxies and quasars. The eternal renewal of matter removes this gravitational instability.
- In Einstein’s static model of the universe, the stars will run out of energy and will have a finite lifetime. Plasma theory leads to reversal of photons gravitational redshifts. A reasonable extrapolation of that finding is that matter is eternally renewed at the centers of galaxies and quasars. As shown in section 6, the observations support this extrapolation.
- Plasma redshift, which is based on basic axioms of physics, leads thus to fundamental changes in our cosmological perspective and to changes in gravitational theory.”
- Ari Brynjolfsson, “Redshift of photons penetrating a hot plasma” (2004), arXiv.org/astro-ph/0401420 (Abstract and full text)
- Brynjolfsson, Ari, “Surface brightness in plasma-redshift cosmology” (2006) eprint arXiv:astro-ph/0605599
- Brynjolfsson, Ari, “Surface Brightness Test and Plasma Redshift” (2005) American Physical Society, Joint New England Sections of the APS and AAPT Spring Meeting, March 31-April 1, 2006, abstract #B.008 (Abstract)
- Brynjolfsson, Ari, “Magnitude-Redshift Relation for SNe Ia, Time Dilation, and Plasma Redshift” (2005) eprint arXiv:astro-ph/0602500
- Brynjolfsson, Ari, “Plasma Redshift versus Big Bang” (2005) American Physical Society, Joint New England Sections of APS and AAPT 2005 Spring Meeting, April 1-2, 2005, abstract #R.006 (Abstract)
- Brynjolfsson, Ari, “Plasma Redshift and the Cosmological Redshift” (2005) American Physical Society, APS April Meeting, April 16-19, 2005, abstract #C9.008 (Abstract)
- Brynjolfsson, Ari, “Plasma Redshift, Time Dilation, and Supernovas Ia”, eprint arXiv:astro-ph/0406437
- Brynjolfsson, Ari, “Plasma redshift of photons: A new way to heat plasma to fusion temperatures” (2004) American Physical Society, April Meeting, 2004, May 1-4, 2004, Denver, Colorado April 2004, MEETING ID: APR04, abstract #R14.003