Mon 22 Dec 2014

Plasma Universe Timeline

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Kristian Birkeland and his terrella experiment

Timeline

-5th Century (BCE)

  • c.500BC, Heraclitus of Ephesus (540–475 BC) writes: ".. the thunderbolt steers the course of all things" (sometimes paraphrased as ".. the thunderbolt steers the Universe")[1]
  • c.450BC, Empedocles (ca. 490–430 BC) is credited with the cosmogenic theory of the four classical elements: Water, Earth, Wind and Fire (a plasma).

17th Century

  • 1607, 17 November, Northern Lights seen over Europe, and witnessed and described by Johannes Kepler (1571-1630).[2]
  • 1616 Galileo Galileo (1564-1642) with his pupil Mario Guiducci (1585-1646) publish an essay in which the Italian term aurora borealis is first used: "thus forming for us this northern dawn (questa boreale aurora)"[2] [3]
  • 1621 French scientist Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655) first uses the Latin term, aurora borealis [4] [5]

18th Century

  • 1773, 17th February, Captain James Cook observes, records, and names the Southern Lights, the Aurora Australis, for the first time.[6]

19th Century

1879. Sir William Crookes discovers "radiant matter" (after Faraday) and also calls it the "Fourth State of Matter"
  • 1814, 26 May, Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Geißler (or Geissler) is born. Around 1855 he invents a low-pressure electrical discharge tube, known as a Geissler tub, a forerunner of the neon tube.
  • 1816, 17 Jan, Michael Faraday gives a series of lectures on the properties of matter, the fourth called "Radiant Matter"[7]
  • 1826, 15 Feb, George Johnstone Stoney is born. In 1874 he proposes the existence of the electron as a fundamental unit of charge,[8] and coins the word "electron" on 26 March 1891.[9]
  • 1831, 13 June, James Clerk Maxwell born, unifies electricity and magnetism, eponymously called Maxwell's equations
  • 1832, 17 June, Sir William Crookes born, discovers "plasma" in Aug 1879.
  • 1850, 18 May, Oliver Heaviside born. He reformulated Maxwell's equations into the form we know today.
  • 1856, 18 December, Sir J J Thomson born, identifying "plasma" as charged particles in April 1897
  • 1867, 13 December, Kristian Birkeland born
  • 1870, 24 September, Georges Claude is born. In 1910 he displays the first neon lamp, and patents the neon lighting tube in 1915.
  • 1871, 30 August, Ernest Rutherford is born. He is generally credited with the discovery of the proton in 1918, and coining the name "proton" in an article on 17 Sep 1920.[10]
  • 1874, August, George Johnstone proposes the existence of the electron, "a quantity of electricity I shall call Er"[8]
  • 1879, 22 August, Sir William Crookes discovers "radiant matter" (after Faraday) and calls it the "Fourth State of Matter"[11]
  • 1879, 24 January, Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Geißler (or Geissler) dies. Around 1855 he invents a low-pressure electrical discharge tube, known as a Geissler tub, a forerunner of the neon tube.
  • 1879, 5 November, James Clerk Maxwell dies, unifies electricity and magnetism, eponymously called Maxwell's equations
  • 1881, 31 January, Irving Langmuir born
  • 1891, 26 March, George Johnstone Stoney coins the word "electron" as a fundamental unit of charge, [9] having proposed its existence in 1874.[8]
  • 1897, 2nd February, Kristian Birkeland sets out from Christiania, on his first (failed) Norwegian Aurora Polaris Expedition
  • 1897, 30 April, Sir J.J. Thomson identifies the nature of Crookes' "radiant matter" (plasma) as charged particles.[12]
  • 1899, September, Kristian Birkeland sets out on his second Norwegian Aurora Polaris Expedition (returning April 1900)

20th Century


Anniversaries

January

  • 7 Jan 1816, Michael Faraday gives a series of lectures on the properties of matter, the fourth called "Radiant Matter"[7]
  • 19 January 1991, Winston H. Bostick dies
  • 19 January 1915, Georges Claude (born 1870) patents the neon lighting tube (Patent #1,125,476) having displayed it in Paris in 1910.
  • 24 January 1879, Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Geißler (or Geissler) dies. Around 1855 he invents a low-pressure electrical discharge tube, known as a Geissler tub, a forerunner of the neon tube.
  • 31 January 1881, Irving Langmuir born

February

  • 2nd February 1897, Kristian Birkeland sets out from Christiania, on his first (failed) Norwegian Aurora Polaris Expedition
  • 3 Feb 1925, Oliver Heaviside dies. He reformulated Maxwell's equations into the form we know today.
  • 15 Feb 1826, George Johnstone Stoney is born. In 1874 he proposes the existence of the electron as a fundamental unit of charge, and coins the word on 4 Sep 1894.[8]
  • 17th February 1773, Captain James Cook observes, records, and names the Southern Lights, the Aurora Australis, for the first time.[6]
  • 20-22 February 1989, IEEE International Conference on Plasma Cosmology (First Workshop on Plasma Cosmology), La Jolla, California

March

  • 5 March 1916, Winston H. Bostick born
  • 17-19 March 1986, NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center hosts workshop on "Double Layers in Astrophysics"[20]
  • 26 March 1891, George Johnstone Stoney coins the word "electron" as a fundamental unit of charge, [9] having proposed its existence in 1874.[8]

April

  • April 1900, Kristian Birkeland returns from his second Norwegian Aurora Polaris Expedition
  • 2 April 1995, Hannes Alfvén dies
  • 4 April 1919, Sir William Crookes dies, discovering "plasma" in Aug 1879.
  • 30th April 1897, Sir J.J. Thomson identifies the nature of Crookes' "radiant matter" (plasma) as charged particles.[12]

May

  • 10-12 May 1993, Second IEEE International Workshop on Plasma Astrophysics and Cosmology, held in Princeton, New Jersey
  • 14 May 1937, Hannes Alfvén predicts an interstellar and intergalactic magnetic field, and corresponding electric fields.[16]
  • 18 May 1850, Oliver Heaviside born. He reformulated Maxwell's equations into the form we know today.
  • 23 May 1960. Georges Claude dies. In 1910 he displayed the first neon lamp, and patented the neon lighting tube in 1915.
  • 26 May, 1814, Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Geißler (or Geissler) is born. Around 1855 he invents a low-pressure electrical discharge tube, known as a Geissler tub, a forerunner of the neon tube.
  • 30 May 1908, Hannes Alfvén born

June

  • 13 June 1831, James Clerk Maxwell born, unifies electricity and magnetism, eponymously called Maxwell's equations
  • 13 June 1903, Willard Harrison Bennett born
  • 17 June 1832, Sir William Crookes born, discovers "plasma" in Aug 1879.
  • 15 June 1917, Kristian Birkeland dies
  • 21 June 1928, Irving Langmuir coins the word "plasma"[14][15]

July

  • 1st July 1902, Kristian Birkeland sets out on his successful third Norwegian Aurora Polaris Expedition (returning in 1903)
  • 5 July 1911, George Johnstone Stoney dies. In 1874 he proposes the existence of the electron as a fundamental unit of charge, and coins the word on 4 Sep 1894.[8]
  • 30 July 1922, Emil Wolf born

August

  • August 1874, George Johnstone Stoney proposes the existence of the electron as a fundamental unit of charge, "a quantity of electricity I shall call Er"[8]
  • 16 August 1957, Irving Langmuir dies
  • 22 August 1879, Sir William Crookes discovers "radiant matter" (plasma) and calls it the "Fourth State of Matter"[11]
  • 27-31 August 1956, IAU Symposium no. 6, on "Electromagnetic Phenomena in Cosmic Physics" in Stockholm.
  • 30 August 1871, Ernest Rutherford is born. He is generally credited with the discovery of the proton in 1918, and coining the name "proton" in an article on 17 Sep 1920.[10]
  • 30 August 1940, Sir J J Thomson dies, identifying "plasma" as charged particles in April 1897

September

October

  • October 1908, Kristian Birkeland publishes the first section of Volume 1 of his book, "The Norwegian Aurora Polaris Expedition" 1902-1903: On The Cause Of Magnetic Storms and The Origin Of Terrestrial Magnetism"
  • October 1956 Winston H. Bostick coins the word 'plasmoid', referring to a plasma-magnetic entity.[19]
  • 3 October 1942 Hannes Alfvén predicts Alfvén waves in Solar plasma, initiating the field of magnetohydrodynamics, and wins the Nobel Prize in 1970.[17]
  • 19 October 1937, Ernest Rutherford dies. He is generally credited with the discovery of the proton in 1918, and coining the name "proton" in an article on 17 Sep 1920.[10]
  • 27 October 1970, Hannes Alfvén awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for his work on magnetohydrodynamics.

November

  • 5 November 1879, James Clerk Maxwell dies, unifies electricity and magnetism, eponymously called Maxwell's equations
  • 17 November 1607, Northern Lights seen over Europe, and witnessed and described by Johannes Kepler (1571-1630).[2]

December

  •   4 December 1931, Carl-Gunne Fälthammar born
  • 11 December 1910, Georges Claude (born 1870) displays the first neon lamp in Paris, and later patents the neon lighting tube in 1915.
  • 13 December 1867, Kristian Birkeland born
  • 18 December 1856, Sir J J Thomson born, identifying "plasma" as charged particles in April 1897
  • 30 December 1979, Charles Bruce dies

Notes

  1. Hippolyte, "Réfutation des toutes les hérésies", (Fragment 64) IX, 10, 7. "It is the thunderbolt (κεραυνός) that steers (οἰακίζει) the course of all things (τὰ πὰντα)." (Ref)
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Harald Falck-Ytter, Aurora: The Northern Lights in Mythology, History and Science Translated by Alexander Robin, Published 2000 by SteinerBooks, ISBN 0880104686, (page 54)
  3. Galileo Galilei and Mario Guiducci, Discorso delle comete, (1619). Translated by Stillman Drake, Discourse on the Comets.
  4. Jon Miller, Brad Inwood, Hellenistic and Early Modern Philosophy 2003, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521823854 (page 37)
  5. Pierre Gassendi, Syntagma philosophicum in Opera omnia vol.2 63-111
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Aurora Australis" from the Web site of the Australian Antarctic Division, retrieved 1 March 2008. "Between midnight and three o'clock in the morning, lights were seen in the heavens, similar to those seen in the northern hemisphere, known by the name of Aurora Borealis, or Northern Lights; but I never heard of the Aurora Australis being seen before."
  7. 7.0 7.1 Jones, Henry Bence, "The life and letters of Faraday (1870)" FULL TEXT, Longman, 1870 (At the Internet Archive)
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 G. J. Stoney, "Of the 'Electron', or Atom of Electricity" FULL TEXT (1894) Philosophical Magazine, Series 5, Volume 38, p. 418-420, October 1894
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 Stoney, G. Johnstone, "On the cause of double lines and of equidistant satellites in the spectra of gases" (1891) Scientific Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society, Volume 4; p563-608; XI (paper number). Read on the 26 March & 22 May 1891. See also, John M. Rodenburg, Ed., "Electron Microscopy and Analysis 1997: Proceedings of the Institute of Physics Electron Microscopy and Analysis Group Conference, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, 2-5 September 1997" (1997) CRC Press, 708 pages, ISBN 0750304413. (Page 2)
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 "Proton", Oxford English Dictionary, in "Engineering", 17 Sept. 1920 382/3
  11. 11.0 11.1 Presented a lecture to the British Association for the Advancement of Science, in Sheffield,[1][2]
  12. 12.0 12.1 Announced in his evening lecture to the Royal Institution on Friday, 30th April 1897, and published in Philosophical Magazine, 44, 293 (Ref}
  13. Kristian Birkeland, "Are the Solar Corpuscular Rays that penetrate the Earth's Atmosphere Negative or Positive Rays?", Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter, I Mat Naturv. Klasse No.1, Christiania, 1916. "From a physical point of view it is most probable that solar rays are neither exclusively negative nor positive rays, but of both kinds""
  14. 14.0 14.1 Langmuir, Irving, "Oscillations in Ionized Gases", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Volume 14, Issue 8, pp. 627-637 (Communicated 21 June 1928) (Abstract and full text). "We shall use the name plasma to describe this region containing balanced charges of ions and electrons."
  15. 15.0 15.1 Lewi Tonks, "The Birth of 'Plasma", American Journal of Physics, Sept 1967, Volume 35, Issue 9
  16. 16.0 16.1 Hannes Alfvén, "Cosmic radiation as an intra-galactic phenomenon", Arkiv för Matematik, Astronomi och Fysik, 25B, no. 29, 1937
  17. 17.0 17.1 Hannes Alfvén, "Existence of electromagnetic-hydrodynamic waves", Nature, Vol. 150, pp. 405, 1942 (Full text)
  18. Kipper, A., "A Symposium on "Electromagnetic Phenomena in Cosmic Physics" in Stockholm on August 27-31, 1956", Soviet Astronomy, Vol. 1, p.293, 04/1957
  19. 19.0 19.1 Bostick, Winston H., "Experimental Study of Ionized Matter Projected across a Magnetic Field", (Oct 1956) Physical Review, vol. 104, Issue 2, pp. 292-299
  20. 20.0 20.1 "Double Layers in Astrophysics", NASA Conference Publication 2469 (NASA CP-2469), (1987) Edited by Alton C. Williams and Tauna W. Moorhead (Record) (Full text) FULL TEXT