Saturn Shadow (exaggerated)
Saturn's rings in shadow (exaggerated colour). Compare with Birkeland's Fig.257 below

On Possible Electric Phenomena in Solar Systems and Nebulae By Kristian_Birkeland

1 Note 2 Chapter VI. On Possible Electric Phenomena in Solar Systems and Nebulae 2.1 The Sun 2.2 The Worlds in the Universe Note Extracted from: The Norwegian Aurora Polaris Expedition 1902-1903 By Kristian_Birkeland Volume 1: On the Cause of Magnetic Storms and The Origin of Terrestrial Magnetism Section 2. Chapter VI (published 1913) Original … Read more

M87 Jet

About Quasi-neutrality

The quasi-neutrality of plasmas, means they tend overall to be electrically neutral. But plasmas can also violate quasi-neutrality, producing charged regions in double layers and particle beams, such as in M87’s jet, above. Introduction   1. What is plasma?   2. Where is plasma?   3. Why is plasma so?   4. Electrified plasmas   … Read more

Alfven-wave double-layer
A cluster of double layers forming in an Alfvén wave, about a sixth of the distance from the left. Source

Alfvén wave

An Alfvén wave is a wave that occurs in a plasma (or conducting fluid), resulting from the interaction of the magnetic fields and electric currents within it, causing an oscillation of the ions. Alfvén wrote in a letter to the journal Nature in 1942: “If a conducting liquid is placed in a constant magnetic field, … Read more

Alpha Centauri Medal

Alpha-Centauri medal

The Alpha-Centauri medal was created by Hannes Alfvén, and is to be given to the first person who is able to prove whether the star Alpha-Centauri is made of either normal matter or anti-matter. The medal is held by the American Geophysical Union (AGU). A drawing of the medal can be seen in EOS Transactions, … Read more

New Scientist Big Bang issue

An Open Letter to the Scientific Community

In 2004, New Scientist, published an open letter from Eric Lerner and about 30 other scientists,[1] criticizing the Big Bang theory, and noting that there are other theories to consider. The text of the letter is reproduced in full below. It originally appeared at cosmologystatement.org (copy). Full text An Open Letter to the Scientific Community … Read more

Heliospheric current sheet
The heliospheric current sheet results from the influence of the Sun's rotating magnetic field on the plasma in the interplanetary medium [1]. The wavy spiral shape has been likened to a ballerina's skirt, and carries a tiny 10-10 A/m2

Astrophysical plasma

An astrophysical plasma is a plasma (an ionised gas) found in astronomy whose physical properties are studied in the science of astrophysics. The vast majority of the volume of the universe is thought to consist of plasma, a state of matter in which atoms and molecules are so hot, that they have ionized by breaking … Read more

Aurora Borealis

Aurora

The aurora (plural aurorae/auroras) is a bright glow observed in the night sky, usually in the polar zone. For this reason some scientists call it a “polar aurora” (or “aurora polaris”). In northern latitudes, it is known as the aurora borealis (IPA Template:IPA), which is named after the Roman goddess of the dawn, Aurora, and … Read more

Jupiter aurora
The aurora on Jupiter,[1] powered by Jovian Birkeland currents.[2] Source/credit

Birkeland current

A Birkeland current usually refers to the electric currents in a planet’s ionosphere that follows magnetic field lines (ie field-aligned currents), and sometimes used to described any field-aligned electric current in a space plasma.[3] They are caused by the movement of a plasma perpendicular to a magnetic field. Birkeland currents often show filamentary, or twisted … Read more