Aurora Earth

What is plasma?

What is plasma? We’re familiar with solids, liquids and gases, such as solid ice, liquid water and gaseous steam. But heat atoms more, and they ‘split’ into free ions and electrons: a plasma, e.g., the electrified aurora, above. Introduction   1. What is plasma?   2. Where is plasma?   3. Why is plasma so? … Read more

Sun Corona

Where is plasma?

The visible Universe is 99.999% plasma. The Sun is about 100% plasma, as are all stars. Plasma makes up nearly 100% of the interplanetary, interstellar and intergalactic medium. The Earth’s ionosphere is plasma. Introduction   1. What is plasma?   2. Where is plasma?   3. Why is plasma so?   4. Electrified plasmas   … Read more

Plasma Lamp

Why is plasma so?

Plasma react very strongly to electromagnetic forces, and is the dominant force in many cosmic plasmas, e.g. stellar surfaces, active galactic nuclei, interplanetary, interstellar and intergalactic space.[1] Introduction   1. What is plasma?   2. Where is plasma?   3. Why is plasma so?   4. Electrified plasmas   5. Plasma filaments   6. Galaxy … Read more

Plasma Universe Calendar calendar cover

Plasma Universe Calendar

The Plasma Universe 2014 calendar features a dozen awe-inspiring images of the cosmos, in which plasma plays an important role. While plasma makes up a considerable proportion of the Universe, not everyone knows its incredible properties… from its ability to form filaments, constrict into “pinches“, conduct electricity better than metals, and form particle beams that … Read more

Winston H. Bostick/Newspaper clippings

Winston H. Bostick newspaper clippings. Note: For peer-reviewed articles on this subject, see Bostick’s bibligraphy and the article on plasmoids. Scientists Generated Needed Temperature To Tap H-Power (11 Dec 1956) Scientists Generated Needed Temperature To Tap H-Power WASHINGTON (UP) — Scientists disclosed Tuesday that they have generated in their labs the multi-million-degree temperatures needed to … Read more

Wolf Effect

The Wolf Effect (sometimes Wolf shift) is a frequency shift in the electromagnetic spectrum, that has been described as a new redshift mechanism.[2][3][4] The phenomenon occurs in several closely related phenomena in radiation physics, with analogous effects occurring in the scattering of light.[5] It was first predicted by Emil Wolf in 1987 [6] [7] and … Read more