The Norwegian Aurora Polaris Expedition 1902-1903 (Book)

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The Norwegian Aurora Polaris Expedition 1902-1903 by Kristian Birkeland.
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The Norwegian Aurora Polaris Expedition 1902-1903 by Kristian Birkeland.
The Norwegian Aurora Polaris Expedition 1902-1903 by Kristian Birkeland.
Enlarge
The Norwegian Aurora Polaris Expedition 1902-1903 by Kristian Birkeland.

By Kristian Birkeland. Publ. by H. Aschehoug & Co. Section 1 published 1908; Section 2 publ. 1913. Out of print. Online in full FULL TEXT

Extract: Section 2 Chapter VI: On Possible Electric Phenomena in Solar Systems and Nebulae

Contents

From the Preface

In his Preface, Birkeland writes:

"The knowledge gained, since 1896, in radio-activity has favoured the view to which I gave expression in that year, namely, that magnetic disturbances on the earth, and aurora borealis, are due to corpuscular rays emitted by the sun.
"During the period from 1896 to 1903 I carried out, in all, three expeditions to the polar regions for the purpose of procuring material that might further confirm this opinion. I have moreover, during the last ten years, by the aid of numerous experimental investigations, endeavoured to form a theory that should explain the origin of these phenomena. It is the results of these investigations that are recorded in this work, the first volume of which treats of terrestrial magnetic phenomena- and earth-currents, this section forming the first two thirds of the volume. The second volume will treat of aurora and some results of meteorological observations made at our stations.
"The leading principle that I have followed in this work has been to endeavour always to interpret the results of the worked-up terrestrial-magnetic observations, and the observations of aurora, upon the basis of my above-mentioned theory.
"[..] experimental investigations with a little magnetic terrella in a large discharge-tube, and by mathematical analysis, we have endeavoured to prove that a current of electric corpuscles from the sun would give rise to precipitation upon the earth, the magnetic effect of which agrees well with the magnetic field of force that was found by the observations on the earth.
"[..] The mathematical investigations, which, together with my experiments, are intended to make clear the movement of electric corpuscles from the sun to the earth, have been carried out, with a perseverance and ingenuity worthy of all admiration, by my friend, Professor STORMER, who will publish the complete results of his investigations in a special part of the present work.

From the Preface (Second section)

"The experimental investigations which at first were designed to procure analogies capable of explaining phenomena on the earth, such as aurora and magnetic disturbances, were subsequently extended, as was only natural, with the object of procuring information as to the conditions under which the emission of the assumed hello-cathode rays from the sun might be supposed to take place.
"The magnetic globe was then made the cathode in the vacuum-box, and experiments were carried on under these conditions for many years.
"It was in this way that there gradually appeared experimental analogies to various cosmic phenomena, such as zodiacal light, Saturn's rings, sun-spots and spiral nebular.
"The consequence was that attempts were made to knit together all these new discoveries and hypotheses into one cosmogonic theory, in which solar systems and the formation of galactic systems are discussed perhaps rather more from electromagnetic points of view than from the theory of gravitation.
"One of the most peculiar features of this cosmogony is that space beyond the heavenly bodies is assumed to be filled with flying atoms and corpuscles of all kinds in such density that the aggregate mass of the heavenly bodies within a limited, very large space would be only a very small fraction of the aggregate mass of the flying atoms there.
"And we imagine that an average equilibrium exists in infinite space, between disintegration of the heavenly bodies on the one hand, and gathering and condensation of flying corpusles on the other.

Contents (Volume 1)

(Note: Volume 2 was never published)

Section 1

  • Introduction
  • The first Expedition, 189
  • The second Aurora Expedition, 1899—1900
  • THE EXPEDITION OF 1902--1903
  • The Auroral Station in Kaafjord
  • The Auroral Station in Dyrafjord, Iceland
  • The Auroral Station in Spitsbergen
  • The Auroral Station in Novaja Semlja
  • The Working-up of the Material


  • PART I. MAGNETIC STORMS, 1902-1903.
INVESTIGATIONS BY MEANS OF DIURNAL REGISTERINGS FROM 25 OBSERVATORIES.


  • CHAPTER I. PRELIMINARY REMARKS CONCERNING OUR MAGNETIC RESEARCHES.
  • Our Aim and our Method of Working 41
  • On the Calculation of the Perturbing Force 44
  • On the Separation of Simultaneous Perturbations 47
  • CALCULATION OF THE SCALE-VALUES FOR THE REGISTERINGS AT THE NORWEGIAN STATIONS.
  • Determin1a6t.ion of the Scale-Values for the Dcclinometer 48
  • Determination of the Sensibility of the Variometers for the Horizontal and Vertical Intensity
  • Determinations of Sensibility for Kaafjord and Bossekop 50
  • Determinations of Sensibility for Dyrafjord 51
  • Determinations of Sensibility for Axeloen 53
  • Determinations of Sensibility for Matotchkin Schar 54
  • Temperature Coefficients for the Registerings 55
  • Explanation of the Charts 56
  • The topics of the Magnetic Registerings, Explanation and General Remarks 58


  • CHAPTER II. ELEMENTARY PERTURBATIONS.
  • General Remarks 61
  • The Equatorial Perturbations 62
  • The Positive Equatorial Perturbation . The Perturbation of the 26th January 1903 .
  • The Perturbations of the 9th December, 1902 70
  • The Perturbation of the 23rd October, 1902 76
  • Concerning the Cause of the Positive Equatorial Perturbation 78
  • The Negative Equatorial Storms 83
  • The Polar Elementary Storms • •
  • The Typical Field for the Polar Elementary Storms 85
  • The Perturbation of the 15th December, 1902 87
  • Concerning the Cause of the Perturbation 95
  • The Perturbation of the l0th February, 1903 io6
  • Concerning the Cause of the Perturbation 113
  • The Perturbations of the 3oth and 31st March, 1903 115
  • The Perturbations of the 22nd March, 1903 127
  • The Perturbations of the 26th December, 1902 137
  • Cyclo-Median Storms
  • The Perturbation of the 6th October, 1902 145
  • Concerning the Cause of the Perturbation 1 49
  • Further Comparison with Stormer's Mathematical Theory


  • CHAPTER III. COMPOUND PERTURBATIONS.
  • The Perturbation of the 29th and 30th October, 1902 161
  • The Perturbation of the 25th December, 1902 164
  • The Perturbation of the 28th December, 1902 169
  • The Perturbations of the 15th February, 1903 172
  • The Perturbations of the 7th and 8th February, 1902 187
  • The Perturbations of the 27th and 28th October, 1902 209
  • The Perturbations of the 28th and 29th October, 1902 222
  • The Perturbations of the 31st October and 1st November, 1902 230
  • How these Perturbations may be explained 234
  • The Perturbations of the 11th and 12th October, 1902 251
  • Concerning the Cause of the Perturbations . Positive and negative Polar Storms
  • The Perturbations of the 23rd and 24th November, 1902 272
  • The Perturbations of the 26th and 27th January, 1903 286
  • Further Comparison with the Terrella-Experiments 297


  • CHAPTER IV. CONCERNING THE INTENSITY OF THE CORPUSCULAR PRECIPITATION IN THE ARCTIC REGIONS OF THE EARTH.
  • Development of General Formula 303
  • Numerical Values for Height and Strength of Current 306
  • The Energy of the Corpuscular Precipitation . The Source of the Sun's Heat 311


Section 2

  • PART II. POLAR MAGNETIC PHENOMENA AND TERRELLA EXPERIMENTS.
  • CHAPTER I. POLAR MAGNETIC STORMS 1882--1883.
  • The Treatment of the Observations from the Polar Expedition of 1882 & 1883
  • The Perturbation of the 15th January, 1883 323
  • The Perturbations of the 2nd January, 1883 339
  • The Perturbations of the 1st November, 1882 350
  • The Perturbations of the 14th and 15th February, 1883 361
  • The Perturbations of the 15th July, 1883 371
  • The Perturbations of the 1st February, 1883 386
  • The Perturbations of the 15th December, 1882 397
  • The Perturbations of the 15th October, 1882 412
  • CHAPTER II. MATHEMATICAL INVESTIGATIONS. PRELIMINARY RESUME.
  • The Calculation of the Field of Force for the assumed Polar Current-System 423
  • Resume 439
  • A Possible Connection between Magnetic and Meteorologic Phenomena 449
  • CHAPTER III. STATISTICAL TREATMENT OF MAGNETIC DISTURBANCES OBSERVED AT THE NORWEGIAN STATIONS 1902-1903.
  • Introductory 451
  • The Total Storminess as a Function of Time and its Relation to Solar Activity
  • On the Possible Influence of the Moon upon Magnetic Storms 519
  • The Seat of the Radiant Source 521
  • Sun-Spots and Storminess 524
  • Annual Variation of Storminess 526
  • On the Diurnal Distribution of Storminess 536
  • Positive and Negative Storminess 536
  • P and N Storminess 537
  • Properties of the <Average Polar Storm> 538
  • Comparison of Storminess at the four Stations 541
  • Separation of Great and Small Disturbances 546
  • The Distribution of Storminess and the Solar Origin of Polar Storms 547
  • Application to Theory 551


  • CHAPTER IV. EXPERIMENTS MADE WITH THE TERRELLA WITH THE SPECIAL PURPOSE OF FINDING AN EXPLANATION OF THE ORIGIN OF THE POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE POLAR STORMS.
  • Introductory 553
STUDY OF RAYS OF GROUP A.
  • Experiment in which the Terrella had only a Vertical Screen 560
  • Experiments in which the Terrella is surrounded by a Horizontal Screen 566
  • Equatorial Rings of Light 569
STUDY OF RAYS OF GROUP B.
  • The Course of the Rays in the Polar Regions over the Terrella 572
  • Experiments for determining the Tangential Component of the Polar Precipitation in Relation to the Surface of the Terrella 58o
  • On an Intimate Connection between Rays of the two Groups A and B 583
  • On the Size of the Polar Ring of Precipitation 591
  • The Value of H . ρ for the Helio-Cathode Rays 598
  • Experiments for the Determination of the Situation of the Polar Zone of Precipitation in Various Positions of the Magnetic Axis 600
  • Investigations Regarding the Angle formed by the Precipitated Rays with the Magnetic lines of Force. Application to the Polar Aurora 603


  • CHAPTER V. IS IT POSSIBLE TO EXPLAIN ZODIACAL LIGHT, COMETS' TAILS, AND SATURN'S RING BY MEANS OF CORPUSCULAR RAYS?
  • Zodiacal Light 611
  • Appendix. Expedition to Assouan and Omdurman 624
  • Magnetic Registerings, the 9th April, 1911 629
  • Comets' Tails 631
  • Halley's Comet, May, 19 t o 639
  • Meteorological Observations about the Time of the Transit of Halley's Comet, 19 to
  • The Saturnian Ring 654


  • The Sun 661
  • Experiments showing Analogies to Solar Phenomena 662
  • Application of the Analogies to further Study of Celestial Phenomena 67o
  • The Worlds in the Universe 677
  • Investigations of the Motion of Electric Corpuscles in the Field of an Elementary Magnet especially to find the Conditions fi>r the Approach to Boundary-Circles 678
  • Study of the Approach to Boundary-Circles, when there is a Resistance in the Medium 686
  • Study of the Approach to Boundary-Circles, when the Charge of the Particles is variable 693
  • Study of the Approach to Boundary-Circles outside the Magnetic Equatorial Plane . . . 697
  • Comparison of Boundary-Circles approached by Different Sorts of Corpuscles
  • Experiments made with the largest Vacuum-box with a Capacity of loon Litres
  • On the Charge of Metallic Particles ejected from a Cathode 716
  • On the Possible Density of flying Corpuscles in Space 720


  • PART III. EARTH CURRENTS AND EARTH MAGNETISM.
  • CHAPTER I. EARTH CURRENTS AND THEIR RELATION TO CERTAIN TERRESTRIAL MAGNETIC PHENOMENA .
  • Introduction 725
  • Strength and Distribution of Earth-Currents 728
  • Diurnal Variation of Earth-Currents 729
  • Earth-Currents and Magnetic Disturbances 730
  • Earth-Current Registerings at Kaafjord and Bossekop, 1902—1903 73 1
  • Constants for the Experimental Arrangements 734
  • The Magnetic Effect of Earth-Currents 736
  • On the Connection between Polar Storms and Earth-Currents 741
  • Earth-Currents and Positive Equatorial Perturbations 746
  • On the Simultaneity of Earth-Currents and Magnetic Disturbances 746
  • Earth-Currents at Bossekop 748
  • The Influence of the Earth-Current upon the Vertical Intensity 749
  • Observations of Earth-Currents at Kaafjord, May, 1910 751
  • Theoretical Investigation of the Currents that are Induced in a Sphere by Variation of External Current-Systems 757
  • Numerical Calculation of the Currents 768
  • Currents that are Induced by Rotation or Removal of the Systems 779
  • Earth-currents in Lower Latitudes 784
  • Earth-currents in Germany 784
  • Earth-currents in France ' 788
  • Earth-currents in England 791
  • Earth-currents at Pawlowsk 792
  • Comparison of Simultaneous Earth-Current Observations 793
  • Consideration of the Conditions during Positive Equatorial Storms 794
  • The Diurnal Variation of the Earth-Currents 796
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