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Difference between revisions of "Plasma-Universe.com"

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<div class="mf-homelogo">[[File:Plasma-universe-url.jpg]]
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The '''[[Plasma Universe]]''' is a term coined by Nobel Laureate [[Hannes Alfvén]] to highlight the importance of plasma throughout the Universe.
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See how much you think you know about '''cosmic plasma''' below, and then check out our [[Articles on the Plasma Universe|articles]], [[Special:Newimages|images]] and the [[Plasma Universe Timeline]]:
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{{Introduction}}
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==Know plasma, know 99.999% of the Universe ==
 
==Know plasma, know 99.999% of the Universe ==
 
<div style="margin:-10px 0px 0px 0px">(No plasma, no Universe)</div>
 
<div style="margin:-10px 0px 0px 0px">(No plasma, no Universe)</div>
  
  
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<table><tr valign=top><td><div align=justify style="padding-right:10px;">
The [[Plasma Universe]] is a term coined by Nobel Laureate [[Hannes Alfvén]] to highlight the importance of plasma throughout the Universe.
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The '''[[Plasma Universe]]''' is a term coined by Nobel Laureate [[Hannes Alfvén]] to highlight the importance of plasma throughout the Universe.
  
See how much you think you know below, and then check out our [[Articles on the Plasma Universe|articles]] and [[Special:Newimages|images]] and [[Plasma Universe Timeline]]:
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See how much you think you know about '''cosmic plasma''' below, and then check out our [[Articles on the Plasma Universe|articles]], [[Special:Newimages|images]] and the [[Plasma Universe Timeline]].</div>
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[[Image:H00b-plasma mosaic-1024.jpg|128px|thumb|[[Wikipedia:Plasma Universe Calendar|2008 Calendar]] ]]
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The [[Wikipedia:Plasma Universe Calendar|Plasma Universe Calendar 2008]]...<br />...is now available for free download, or, by print-on-demand in full colour, delivered. It features lots of amazing images of the Universe, including some you may never have seen before, together with fascinating facts about cosmic plasma. Ideal for astronomy buffs and students. Runs 14 months.</div>
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<!---  FACTS --------------------------------------------------  -->
 
<!---  FACTS --------------------------------------------------  -->
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Note: Some of the theories on this site form the cornerstone of plasma astrophysics. Other theories contradict the generally accepted view ([[Plasma Universe / Big Bang comparison|qv]]). This site merely attempts to describe them, citing peer-reviewed references where available.</div>
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<table><tr valign=top><td><!-- FIRST ROW -- -->
 
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<table style="width:196px;border:2px solid darkblue;text-align:justify;border-radius: 10px;border-radius: 10px;">
<tr><td style="background:darkblue;color:yellow;font-size:120%;text-align:center;font-weight:bold;-moz-border-radius: 10px 10px 0px 0px">1: What is plasma?</td></tr>
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<tr><td style="background:darkblue;color:yellow;font-size:120%;text-align:center;font-weight:bold;border-radius: 10px 10px 0px 0px">1: What is plasma?</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="background:black;height:196px;">[[Image:aurora-earth.jpg|196px]]</td></tr>
 
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<table style="width:196px;border:2px solid darkblue;text-align:justify;border-radius: 10px;border-radius: 10px;">
<tr><td style="background:darkblue;color:yellow;font-size:120%;text-align:center;font-weight:bold;-moz-border-radius: 10px 10px 0px 0px">2: Where is plasma?</td></tr>
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<tr><td style="background:darkblue;color:yellow;font-size:120%;text-align:center;font-weight:bold;border-radius: 10px 10px 0px 0px">2: Where is plasma?</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="background:#710100;height:196px;">[[Image:Sun-corona.jpg|196px]]</td></tr>
 
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<table style="width:196px;border:2px solid darkblue;text-align:justify;border-radius: 10px;border-radius: 10px;">
<tr><td style="background:darkblue;color:yellow;font-size:120%;text-align:center;font-weight:bold;-moz-border-radius: 10px 10px 0px 0px">3: Why is plasma so?</td></tr>
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<tr><td style="background:darkblue;color:yellow;font-size:120%;text-align:center;font-weight:bold;border-radius: 10px 10px 0px 0px">3: Why is plasma so?</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="background:black;">[[Image:Plasma-lamp 2.jpg|192px]]</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="background:black;">[[Image:Plasma-lamp 2.jpg|192px]]</td></tr>
 
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All [[plasma]]s react more strongly to [[electromagnetic force]]s than [[gravity]], ''by definition''. Hence 99.999% of the Universe reacts more strongly to electromagnetic forces. And all [[astrophysical plasma|space plasma]]s produce magnetic fields.</td></tr>
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[[Plasma]] react very strongly to [[electromagnetic force]]s, and is the dominant force in many cosmic plasmas, e.g. stellar surfaces, active galactic nuclei, and, interplanetary, interstellar and intergalactic space.[http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=5Ba2-lfLiiAC&pg=PA1&dq=plasma+electromagnetic+forces+gravitational&sig=ZeRRRpfkLGy5qRNFHbA1VEpsYRI#PPA1,M1]</td></tr>
 
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<table><tr valign=top><td><!-- SECOND ROW -- -->
 
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<table style="width:196px;border:2px solid darkblue;text-align:justify;border-radius: 10px;border-radius: 10px;">
<tr><td style="background:darkblue;color:yellow;font-size:120%;text-align:center;font-weight:bold;-moz-border-radius: 10px 10px 0px 0px">4: Electrified plasmas</td></tr>
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<tr><td style="background:darkblue;color:yellow;font-size:120%;text-align:center;font-weight:bold;border-radius: 10px 10px 0px 0px">4: Electrified plasmas</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="background:black;height:196px;">[[Image:Heliospheric-current-sheet_edit.jpg|196px]]</td></tr>
 
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Space plasma moving through a magnetic field generates its own [[Electric_currents_in_space_plasmas|electric current]], can act as a [[unipolar inductor]], and conducts electricity better than metals, e.g. the [[heliospheric current sheet]] above, and [[Birkeland current]]s.</td></tr>
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Space plasma moving through a magnetic field generates its own [[Electric_currents_in_space_plasmas|electric current]], can act as a [[unipolar inductor]], and it conducts electricity better than metals, e.g. the [[heliospheric current sheet]] above, and [[Birkeland current]]s.</td></tr>
 
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<tr><td style="background:darkblue;color:yellow;font-size:120%;text-align:center;font-weight:bold;-moz-border-radius: 10px 10px 0px 0px">5: Plasma filaments</td></tr>
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<tr><td style="background:darkblue;color:yellow;font-size:120%;text-align:center;font-weight:bold;border-radius: 10px 10px 0px 0px">5: Plasma filaments</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="background:black;height:196px;">[[Image:ant-nebula-rotated.jpg|196px]]</td></tr>
 
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Strong radial magnetic fields can make a [[pinch|plasma pinch]] like the hourglass-shaped nebula above; produce characteristic [[filamentation|filament]]s like in the plasma ball (top row); and produce [[particle beam]]s as seen in the [[dense plasma focus]].</td></tr>
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Magnetic fields from electric currents make a [[pinch|plasma pinch]] seen in the hourglass-shaped nebula above, and constricting [[filamentation|filament]]s in a plasma ball and lightning bolts; they also constrict [[particle beam]]s seen in astrophysical jets.</td></tr>
 
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<tr><td style="background:darkblue;color:yellow;font-size:120%;text-align:center;font-weight:bold;-moz-border-radius: 10px 10px 0px 0px">6: Galaxy simulation</td></tr>
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<tr><td style="background:darkblue;color:yellow;font-size:120%;text-align:center;font-weight:bold;border-radius: 10px 10px 0px 0px">6: Galaxy simulation</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="background:black;">[[Image:peratt-galaxy-simulation.gif|192px]]</td></tr>
 
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<table><tr valign=top><td><!-- THIRD ROW ---->
 
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<tr><td style="background:darkblue;color:yellow;font-size:120%;text-align:center;font-weight:bold;-moz-border-radius: 10px 10px 0px 0px">7: Complex dusty plasmas</td></tr>
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<tr><td style="background:darkblue;color:yellow;font-size:120%;text-align:center;font-weight:bold;border-radius: 10px 10px 0px 0px">7: Dusty plasmas</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="background:black;height:196px;">[[Image:ngc-6751.jpg|196px]]</td></tr>
 
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<tr><td style="background:darkblue;color:yellow;font-size:120%;text-align:center;font-weight:bold;-moz-border-radius: 10px 10px 0px 0px">8: Quasi-neutrality</td></tr>
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<tr><td style="background:darkblue;color:yellow;font-size:120%;text-align:center;font-weight:bold;border-radius: 10px 10px 0px 0px">8: Quasi-neutrality</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="background:black;height:196px;">[[Image:m87-marshall.jpg|196px]]</td></tr>
 
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<tr><td style="background:darkblue;color:yellow;font-size:120%;text-align:center;font-weight:bold;-moz-border-radius: 10px 10px 0px 0px">9: From lab to space</td></tr>
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<tr><td style="background:darkblue;color:yellow;font-size:120%;text-align:center;font-weight:bold;border-radius: 10px 10px 0px 0px">9: From lab to space</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="background:#444444;height:196px">[[Image:dense-plasma-focus-sheath.jpg|196px]]</td></tr>
 
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Plasma Universe research derives from [[laboratory astrophysics|laboratory experiments]], such as the [[dense plasma focus]] above, with pioneers such as [[Kristian Birkeland]], [[Hannes Alfvén]], [[Winston H. Bostick]]. Compare this image with the nebula, far left</td></tr>
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Plasma Universe research derives from [[laboratory astrophysics|laboratory experiments]], such as the [[dense plasma focus]] above, with pioneers such as [[Kristian Birkeland]], [[Hannes Alfvén]], [[Winston H. Bostick]]. Compare this image with the Glowing Eye Nebula, far left</td></tr>
 
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<tr><td style="background:darkblue;color:yellow;font-size:120%;text-align:center;font-weight:bold;border-radius: 10px 10px 0px 0px">10: Types of Plasmas</td></tr>
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<tr><td style="background:darkblue;color:yellow;font-size:120%;text-align:center;font-weight:bold;-moz-border-radius: 10px 10px 0px 0px">10: Types of Plasmas</td></tr>
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<div style="margin:0 auto;border:1px solid black;background:#cccccc;width:400px;text-align:center;border-radius:5px"><b>2017 Website statistics:</b><br> 9,000 unique visitors, and 33,000 page views per month
 
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[[Image:plasma-first-state.png|center|400px|]]
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<center>[[Plasma]] is sometimes described as the first state of matter<br />in addition to solid, liquids and gases</center>
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Latest revision as of 19:09, 2 July 2018

Know plasma, know 99.999% of the Universe

(No plasma, no Universe)


The Plasma Universe is a term coined by Nobel Laureate Hannes Alfvén to highlight the importance of plasma throughout the Universe.

See how much you think you know about cosmic plasma below, and then check out our articles, images and the Plasma Universe Timeline.
Note: Some of the theories on this site form the cornerstone of plasma astrophysics. Other theories contradict the generally accepted view (qv). This site merely attempts to describe them, citing peer-reviewed references where available.


1: What is plasma?
Aurora-earth.jpg
What is plasma? We're familiar with solids, liquids and gases, such as solid ice, liquid water and gaseous steam. But heat atoms more, and they 'split' into free ions and electrons: a plasma, e.g., the electrified aurora, above.
2: Where is plasma?
Sun-corona.jpg
The visible Universe is 99.999% plasma. The Sun is about 100% plasma, as are all stars. Plasma makes up nearly 100% of the interplanetary, interstellar and intergalactic medium. The Earth's ionosphere is plasma.
3: Why is plasma so?
Plasma-lamp 2.jpg
Plasma react very strongly to electromagnetic forces, and is the dominant force in many cosmic plasmas, e.g. stellar surfaces, active galactic nuclei, and, interplanetary, interstellar and intergalactic space.[1]

4: Electrified plasmas
Heliospheric-current-sheet edit.jpg
Space plasma moving through a magnetic field generates its own electric current, can act as a unipolar inductor, and it conducts electricity better than metals, e.g. the heliospheric current sheet above, and Birkeland currents.
5: Plasma filaments
Ant-nebula-rotated.jpg
Magnetic fields from electric currents make a plasma pinch seen in the hourglass-shaped nebula above, and constricting filaments in a plasma ball and lightning bolts; they also constrict particle beams seen in astrophysical jets.
6: Galaxy simulation
Peratt-galaxy-simulation.gif
Computer simulations of two interacting Birkeland currents with plasma clouds trapped in parallel magnetic filaments simulate evolving galaxy formations, without the need for dark matter and black holes!

7: Dusty plasmas
Ngc-6751.jpg
A gas as little as 1% ionized may behave as a plasma (e.g. the ionosphere). In addition to light and friction, dust and grains are charged inside a plasma, and behave as one, such as the Glowing Eye Nebula, above.
8: Quasi-neutrality
M87-marshall.jpg
The quasi-neutrality of plasmas, means they tend overall to be electrically neutral. But plasmas can also violate quasi-neutrality, producing charged regions in double layers and particle beams, such as in M87's jet, above.
9: From lab to space
Dense-plasma-focus-sheath.jpg
Plasma Universe research derives from laboratory experiments, such as the dense plasma focus above, with pioneers such as Kristian Birkeland, Hannes Alfvén, Winston H. Bostick. Compare this image with the Glowing Eye Nebula, far left

10: Types of Plasmas
Plasma-types.jpg
Plasmas vary according to temperature and density, and have characteristics that scale over many orders of magnitude.
Image copyright Contemporary Physics Education Project


2017 Website statistics:
9,000 unique visitors, and 33,000 page views per month


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Know plasma, know 99.999% of the Universe
Astrophysics from the laboratory to the Cosmos

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