99.999% plasma

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It is estimated that 99.999% of the visible universe is in the plasma state
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It is estimated that 99.999% of the visible universe is in the plasma state
The Sun's mass makes up over 99.85% of the Solar System.[1], and since it is nearly all in the plasma state,[2] over 99.9% of the mass of the Solar System is in the plasma state.
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The Sun's mass makes up over 99.85% of the Solar System.[1], and since it is nearly all in the plasma state,[2] over 99.9% of the mass of the Solar System is in the plasma state.

The visible universe is 99.999% plasma. So quite simply, if you don't know how cosmic plasmas behave, you don't know the Universe. And astrophysical plasmas may behave differently to terrestrial plasmas.

It is worth noting that all cosmic plasma carries a magnetic field and electric currents. Even plasmas that are less than 1% ionized, may behave as a plasma, as do dusty plasmas (ie. "dust grains can be the dominant current carrier")[3].

The Universe is 99.999% plasma

  • "Today it is recognized that 99.999% of all observable matter in the universe is in the plasma state..."[4]
  • "It is estimated that as much as 99.9% of the universe is comprised of plasma."[5]
  • "..the plasma state is the most abundant state of matter. It is thought that more than 99.9% of matter in the universe is in plasma"[6]
  • "plasmas are abundant in the universe. More than 99% of all known matter is in the plasma state"[7]
  • "It is an interesting fact that most of the material in the visible universe, as much as 99% according to some estimates, is in the plasma state"[8]
  • "Probably more than 99 percent of visible matter in the universe exist in the plasma state."[9]
  • "The plasma environment Plasmas, often called the fourth state of matter, are the most common form of matter in the universe. More than 99% of all matter"[10]
  • "It is estimated that more than 99 percent of matter in the universe exists as plasma; examples include stars, nebulae, and interstellar particles"[11]
  • "It is sometimes said that more than 99 percent of the material in the universe is in the form of plasma"[12]
  • "about 99% of matter in the universe is plasma"[13]
  • "99.9 percent of the Universe is made up of plasma," says Dr. Dennis Gallagher, a plasma physicist at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center" [14]
  • "How was it determined that 99% of the Universe is in a plasma state? Most of the gas in interstellar space is ionized (astronomers can tell by the wavelengths of light the gas absorbs and emits), and all of the gas in stars in ionized, that's where the 99% comes from. The 99% ignores any dark matter which might be out there."[15]
  • "It has often been said that 99% of the matter in the universe is in the plasma state.[16]
  • "And yet these radio-frequency links must survive the complexities of the plasma which comprises well over 99.9 percent of the universe".[17]
  • "This fourth state of matter probably comprises more than 99.9 per cent of the matter in our Universe."[18]

The Solar System is 99.85% plasma

The Sun's mass makes up over 99.85% of the Solar System.[1] , and since it is nearly all in the plasma state,[2] over 99.98% of the mass of the Solar System is in the plasma state

The interplanetary medium is a near-100% plasma

The tenuous matter between the Sun and the planets is a fully ionized (100%) plasma.[19]. While the interplanetary plasma is very thin, it carries both a magnetic field and electric currents estimated at 3×109 amperes (see the heliospheric current sheet).

The interstellar medium is a plasma

The more tenuous matter between stars, the interstellar medium, includes regions of neutral hydrogen gas, dust and plasma such as the "Warm Ionized Medium", H II regions, and "hot ionized medium". As a significantly ionized gas, the medium behaves as a plasma, and carries a magnetic field,[20], and electric currents.[21]. (See also dusty plasmas)

The intergalactic medium is a near-100% plasma

The space between galaxies, the intergalactic medium, is a very tenuous, fully ionized plasma. [22], that carries magnetic field and electric currents.[23]


Notes

  1. ^ a b The Solar System edited by Thérèse Encrenaz, Published 2004 Springer, ISBN 3540002413. Page 1 ACADEMIC BOOK
  2. ^ a b Introduction to Plasma Physics: With Space and Laboratory Applications, by Donald A. Gurnett, Published 2005 Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521364833, Page 2 ACADEMIC BOOK
  3. ^ Cramer, N. F.; Vladimirov, S. V., "Space charge modes in the magnetized discharge with dust", New Vistas in Dusty Plasmas: Fourth International Conference on the Physics of Dusty Plasmas. AIP Conference Proceedings, Volume 799, pp. 561-564 (2005) (Abstract)
  4. ^ Plasma Physics: Proceedings of the 1997 Latin American Workshop : VII LAWPP 97, by Julio Puerta, Pablo Martín, Published 1999 Springer, ISBN 079235527X, Page 57
  5. ^ Analytical and Numerical Methods for Wave Propagation in Fluid Media By Krzysztof. Murawski, Published 2002 World Scientific, ISBN 9812381554, Page 14 ACADEMIC BOOK
  6. ^ Plasma Physics: Basic Theory with Fusion Applications, by Masashiro Wakatani, Kyōji Nishikawa, Published 1994 Springer, ISBN 354065285X, Page 11
  7. ^ Basic Space Plasma Physics, by Wolfgang Baumjohann, Rudolf A. Treumann, Published 1996 World Scientific, 1 ACADEMIC BOOK
  8. ^ Introduction to Plasma Physics: With Space and Laboratory Applications, by Donald A. Gurnett, Published 2005 Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521364833, Page 2 ACADEMIC BOOK
  9. ^ Quantum Statistics of Nonideal Plasmas By Manfred Schlanges, Dietrich Kremp, Wolf-Dietrich Kraeft, Published 2005 Springer, ISBN 3540652841, Page 1 ACADEMIC BOOK
  10. ^ Spacecraft Power Technologies by Anthony K. Hyder, Published 2000 Imperial College Press, ISBN 1860941176, Page 41 ACADEMIC BOOK
  11. ^ Burning Plasma: Bringing a Star to Earth by National Research Council (U.S.), Published 2004 National Academies Press, ISBN 0309090822, Page 188 FULL TEXT ACADEMIC BOOK
  12. ^ Plasma Spectroscopy by Takashi Fujimoto, Published 2004 Oxford University Press, ISBN 0198530285, Page 13 ACADEMIC BOOK
  13. ^ Space Physics: An Introduction to Plasmas and Particles in the Heliosphere and Magnetospheres by May-Britt Kallenrode, Published 2004 Springer, ISBN 3540206175, Page 4 ACADEMIC BOOK
  14. ^ Dr. Dennis Gallagher, "Plasma, Plasma, Everywhere", NASA Space Science News {{full}
  15. ^ NASA's Cosmicopia FULL TEXT
  16. ^ Francis F. Chen, "Introduction to plasma physics", Publisher Plenum Press, 1974, ISBN 0306307553, 9780306307553, 329 pages, page 1 ACADEMIC BOOK
  17. ^ Banios, E. W., "Plasma Considerations in Space Communications", IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, Nov. 1966, Volume: AES-2, Issue: 6, pages: 333 - 339 PEER REVIEWED
  18. ^ Bachynski, M.P., "Plasma Physics - An Elementary Review", Proceedings of the IRE, (Abs.) Dec. 1961, Volume: 49, Issue: 12, pages: 1751 - 1766
  19. ^ Solar wind & interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) FULL TEXT
  20. ^ Florinski, V. et al, "On the Possibility of a Strong Magnetic Field in the Local Interstellar Medium", The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 604, Issue 2, pp. 700-706, (Abstract) PEER REVIEWED
  21. ^ Carlqvist, Per, "Cosmic electric currents and the generalized Bennett relation", Astrophysics and Space Science (ISSN 0004-640X), vol. 144, no. 1-2, May 1988, p. 73-84, (Abstract and full text) FULL TEXT PEER REVIEWED
  22. ^ A M Soward, Fluid Dynamics and Dynamos in Astrophysics and Geophysics, Published 2005 Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0849333555. (page 124) ACADEMIC BOOK
  23. ^ Jafelice, Luiz C.; Opher, Reuven, "The origin of intergalactic magnetic fields due to extragalactic jets", Royal Astronomical Society, Monthly Notices (ISSN 0035-8711), vol. 257, no. 1, July 1, 1992, p. 135-151 (Abstract and full text) FULL TEXT
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